Ductless heat pumps (a.k.a.,“mini-splits”) are highly efficient zonal heating and cooling systems. Mini-splits were developed in Japan more 30 years ago and have completely changed how people think about heating and cooling their homes and businesses. More than 50 percent of the residential air conditioners sold worldwide are ductless heat pumps.
According to the Northwest Ductless Heat Pump Project:
“Ductless systems, also known as ductless heat pumps or ductless mini-splits, are highly efficient easily installed primary heating and cooling systems for electrically heated homes. They’re safe, durable and quiet, and they heat rooms evenly at a fraction of the cost of baseboard, wall and ceiling heat or electric furnaces.
Ductless systems utilize heat pump technology to distribute warm or cool air more quietly and efficiently than traditional electric heaters. With three main components (outdoor unit, indoor wall-mounted unit, remote control), ductless heat pumps are easily installed by a professional in less than a day and can reduce your electric heating costs by 25% -50% while keeping you comfortable all year long.
Ductless heating and cooling systems are reversible, two-way heat pump that simply take heat energy from on place and move it to another by compressing and expanding refrigerant. There are three main components:
1. Outdoor unit: connects to the indoor unit by a small bundle of cables, including a refrigerant line. The unit is placed outside of the home on ground level.
2. Indoor unit: mounted on a centrally located wall. One indoor head is enough to heat and cool an average-sized Northwest home.
3. Remote control: allows occupants to adjust the settings for maximum efficiency, comfort and control.
Installation is quick and easy. There is no need for expensive, invasive and often leaky duct work: A small 3-inch hold hidden behind the indoor unit is all that’s needed to connect it to the outdoor unit. Ductless systems do best when they are installed in a central location in your home. They work with your existing heating system to ensure that bedrooms and bathrooms are the perfect temperature.”
Heat pumps are ideally suited for the Northwest climate, delivering efficiencies 2-4 times that of electric resistance space heating. That is because heat pumps don’t actually make heat, they use a refrigerant and a compressor to extract heat from the outside air and “pump” it into your home. In the summer, heat pumps can reverse cycle and serve as efficient air conditioners. And, because the price of natural gas and other fuels have gone up more than the price of electricity over the last few years, heat pumps heat for less in the Northwest. Period.
Many homes do not have ducts and adding ducts is expensive and often impractical. Residential duct systems are also hard to get right. Not getting the ducts right results in big energy efficiency penalties (up to ~30%). Poorly designed and installed duct systems can also result in issues related to air flow, comfort, noise, and indoor air quality. Ducts should be cleaned, but rarely are.
We believe ductless heat pumps are applicable to nearly all homes. Of course, we are The Heat Pump Store! Some preferred residential applications include: Displacing existing electric heating – Some of the most cost-effective ductless heat pump applications consist of a single-zone system serving the main area (zone) of a house heated with electric baseboards, wall units or ceiling cable heat. In these cases, “old electric heat” continues to serve bedrooms, bathrooms and other secondary zones as needed. And you get awesome air conditioning in your primary zone! Displacement also works well with electric resistance forced-air systems (with additional consideration of secondary zones); Bonus rooms and additions – Ductless heat pumps are perfect for room additions, attic living space, and that bonus room that is no bonus because it is too cold in the winter and/or too hot in the summer; New construction – New homes can be designed or easily adapted to take advantage of the characteristics of ductless heat pumps. As with existing homes, the most cost-effective approach is often a hybrid strategy with 1 or 2 ductless heat pumps and low cost electric resistance heaters serving low use areas. Many builders have come to realize that ductless heat pumps clean up the intensive process with installing quality central ducted systems.
While a ductless mini split system can be used as a primary heat source, most homeowners are encouraged to keep their existing electric heating units (or install in new construction projects) to supplement the DHP system in extreme weather conditions or to serve distinct secondary zones (as needed).
The system is controlled with a handheld remote control that resembles your TV remote control. Using this control, the homeowner can select heating or cooling, the temperature setting, and other modes of operation such as fan speed and air direction.
Typically, the total installed cost of single-zone ductless heat pumps ranges from $3,000 to $5,000. Factors that may affect installed cost include equipment manufacturer and model, refrigerant line-set length, and difficulty of installation. Multi-zone solutions add cost. You may be able to lower the cost if you have “drills and skills”. The Heat Pump Store has developed Do-it-Yourself Ductless packages for builders, remodelers, and homeowners that typically reduce total installed cost by $500 to $1,000 (per zone).
To help with the cost of a new system, The Heat Pump Store offers four incredible financing options.
No monthly interest if the balance is paid in full within 12 months (deferred interest).
5.99% APR until paid in full, with fixed monthly payments of 4.00% of the financed amount. Estimated payoff period is 27 months.
7.99% APR until paid in full, with fixed monthly payments of 3.00% of the financed amount. Estimated payoff period is 38 months.
9.99% APR until paid in full, with fixed monthly payments of 1.75% of the financed amount. Estimated payoff period is 78 months.
Because ductless heat pumps represent the highest level of efficiency, utilities may offer financial incentives to help you pay for your system! Most Pacific Northwest utilities are encouraging the use of inverter-driven ductless heat pumps to displace electric resistance heat. See what you qualify for here.
With proper maintenance, such as that provided by one of our Ductless Care Plans, a ductless heat pump can perform well for over 20 years. Many systems installed in the 1980’s are still functioning well today (> 30 years). It is important to maintain your system by having a professional service it yearly, but also cleaning the filters regularly.
First and foremost, cleaning the filters on the indoor unit is a must. Every month or two (depending on use and environment) works for most people. The good news is that vacuuming the filters only takes 2-3 minutes. You should also keep debris (leaves, plants, bark mulch, clutter, etc.) from building up around the outdoor unit and blocking the airflow or drainage holes. Additionally, The Heat Pump Store recommends that system performance be checked and both the indoor and outdoor units thoroughly cleaned once a year to ensure a proper operating environment. Watch our “The Value of Regular Maintenance” Video
Ductless heat pump systems are sized to meet the heating and cooling needs of individual zones in the home, which can vary greatly due to the thermal characteristics of the zone and connected zones. The good news is that there is a great deal of flexibility when it comes to sizing ductless heat pumps because they are inverter-driven, variable speed. Typically, a 1-ton (12,000 BTU/hr) ductless system will effectively serve up to 600 square feet. Even more square footage can be served, if there is a good backup system you are willing to use. The Heat Pump Store can help you with sizing specific to your primary zone(s).